Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus, 1758) Painted Lady or Cosmopolitan, Distelfalter, Vanesse du chardon, Ванесса чертополоховая (Репейница), Կռատուկի վանեսսա
Distribution and biological peculiarities in Armenia: The species is one of the most widespread of all butterflies, found on every continent except Antarctica and South America. In Australia, V. cardui has a limited range around Bunbury, Fremantle and Rottnest Island. Taxonomy of the species is under discussions and as a working hypothesis we take that Armenia is inhabited by nominate subspecies, which occupies entire country occurring almost everywhere at the elevations from 400 to 3500 m a.s.l. It uses various host-plants, such as Carduus spp., Arctium spp., Artemisia spp., Centaurea spp., and others. It gives up to three generations per annum and the butterflies are observed on wing from mid March till early November.
Population dynamics: The species is slightly uncommon within typical habitat and demonstrates growing population trend in 2003-2013 (p<0.05). It appears that the species' adaptability and the high rate of its host-plants survival allows it to occupy the niches in degraded habitats.
Conservation measures: The species is not included in the Global and Armenian Red Lists, as well as in CITES and Bern Conventions, and is listed In European Red Book as Least Concern - obviously the same status should be proposed for Armenia. Occupying almost whole country it occurs in all the protected areas, Emerald Sites and Prime Butterfly Areas. There is no necessity for special conservation measures for the Painted Lady, however its monitoring remains important for better understanding of human influence on the ecosystems.