Pyrgus cirsii (Rambur, 1839) Cinquefoil skipper, Spätsommer-Würfel-Dickkopffalter, Hespérie des cirses.
Distribution and biological peculiarities in Armenia: The species is distributed in Andorra, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland. Isolated populations occur in northeastern Turkey, Georgia, and Armenia. Host plants are various Cinquefoils (Potentilla spp.). In Armenia the species found in two isolated locations in mountain steppes at calcareous slopes and in sub-alpine grasslands above 2000 m a.s.l. Flight period is mainly in August in single generation; some individuals can last until early September.
Population dynamics: The species was first found in Armenia in 1999, however the data for calculation of population trend was not collected regularly, and is not sufficient for estimation of the population trend. In the typical habitat the species usually occurs with a low number. The distribution areas of the species lay at the major areas of seasonal livestock husbandry. Poorly managed mountain pastures are under high risk of degradation due to overgrazing that eliminates diversity of plants and causes additional damage of soil and vegetation by feet of livestock.
Conservation measures: Although the species is included in the Global and European Red Lists, it has not been evaluated for the Red Book of Animals of Armenia. Preliminary evaluation of the species for the National Red List estimates its conservation status as Vulnerable. The species is not included into CITES as its trade is considered of low interest, but it also not included in the Appendices of Bern Convention, which makes its protection at local level a complex task. The first step in the process of protection of the species at national level is conduction of the full evaluation process of conservation status of the species, and its acceptance; evaluation of its distribution areas as Prime Butterfly Area, as Emerald Sites, and later their inclusion into the network of protected areas; with further development of a management plan of the areas.