Distribution and biological peculiarities in Armenia: The species is found in northern Africa and across Europe from Portugal through Asia as far as Japan. Armenia is inhabited by nominate subspecies, which occupies almost entire country occurring in wide variety of habitats, such as forests, woodlands, and scrubs at the elevation range from 400 to 2300 m a.s.l. It appears that the Comma uses wide variety of host-plants, which include Salix spp, Ulmus spp, Betula spp, Lonicera spp, and others. The species gives two to three generations per year, with hibernation of the butterflies of last generation. Thus the species is on wing from late March till early October.
Population dynamics: The species is slightly uncommon within typical habitat, and shows stable population trend during 2003-2013 (p>0.05), which is justified by high level of species adaptability and less anthropogenic pressure on the host plants.
Conservation measures: The species is not included in the Global and Armenian Red Lists, as well as in CITES and Bern Conventions, but is included in the Red Book of European Butterflies as Least Concern. Preliminary assessment of its national conservation status suggests the same, especially taking into account that Comma's distribution in Armenia is covered by almost all protected areas, Emerald Sites, and Prime Butterfly Areas. Thus there is no need for special conservation measures, although its monitoring, as an essential component of biodiversity, remains important.