Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758 Old World swallowtail or Common Yellow swallowtail, Schwalbenschwanz, Machaon (papillon), Парусник махаон.
Distribution and biological peculiarities in Armenia: The species is present throughout the entire Palearctic region, ranging from Russia to China and Japan, (including the Himalayas and Taiwan), and across into Alaska, Canada, and the United States. In Asia, it is reported as far south as Saudi Arabia, Oman, the high mountains of Yemen, Lebanon and Israel. In southern Asia, it occurs in Pakistan and Kashmir, northern India (Sikkim,, to Assam and Arunachal Pradesh), Nepal, Bhutan, and northern Myanmar. This butterfly is widespread in Europe. In the United Kingdom, it is limited to a few areas in the Norfolk Broads of East Anglia. It is the UK's largest resident butterfly. Armenia is inhabited by subspecies P. m. syriacus Verity, 1908, which occupies wide variety of open and semi-open habitats – semi-deserts, mountain steppes, juniper woodlans, and so on, thus occuring in the elevation range ffrom 400 to 2200 m a.s.l. The species uses wide variety of Umbeliferae a host-plants, most of those are poisonous for the livestock. The species distinctly has two generations per year, when first is on wing from early April till early May, and the second – from mid June till mid August.
Population dynamics: The abundance of the species is rather low, however its population trend during 2003-2013 is stable (p>0.05). Most probably it is a result of the fact that the host-plants of the Swallowtail are not eatable for the livestock, therefore are not removed.
Conservation measures: The Old-world Swallowtail is not yet evaluated for IUCN and National Red Lists, as well as is not included in CITES and Bern Conventions, however it is included in the European Red Book as Least Concern. Preliminary assessment of the species’ conservation status for Armenia also suggest it as a Least Concern. Some portion of its distribution range is covered by Protected Areas, Emerald Sites, and Prime Butterfly Areas, while significant portion remains unprotected. It should be mentioned though, that at current there is no need to develop conservation measures for the species, however is necessary to continue its monitoring, as well as to start using it for conservation education.