Issoria lathonia (Linnaeus, 1758) Queen of Spain Fritillary, Kleiner Perlmutterfalter, Petit nacre, Перламутровка латона, Լաթոնիա
Distribution and biological peculiarities in Armenia: The species is distributed from Europe, Northern Africa, and Canary Islands, through Central Asia, Himalaya, Baluchistan, and Chitral to Sikkim, and Western China. Taxonomic status of the species in Armenia is under question although it is supposed that the country is inhabited by nominate subspecies, which occupies almost entire area occurring in wide variety of habitats, preferring grasslands however. Elevation range occupied by the Queen of Spain Fritillary is from 400 to 2600 m a.s.l. Among host-plants the various species of Viola, Onobrychis, Trifolium, Anchusa, and Rubus are listed. The species gives from two to four generations per year depending on elevation, the butterflies are recorded on wing from early April till late October.
Population dynamics: The species is slightly uncommon to rare depending on habitat having higher number in meadows and mountain steppes. The population trend of Queen of Spain Fritillary in 2003-2013 shows stability (p>0.05), which can be justified by its adaptability and wide variety of host-plants being used, so the species survives in the habitats being overgrazed or even transformed.
Conservation measures: The Queen of Spain Fritillary is not included in the IUCNl and Armenian Red Lists, as well as in CITES and Bern Conventions. It was evaluated for the European Red Book as Least Concern, the same status, which is proposed for the species in Armenia. It occurs in almost all Protected Areas, Emerald Sites, and Prime Butterfly Areas. At current there is obviously no need for development of specific conservation measures, however the monitoring of the species remains essential as one of the main components of various habitats.