Nymphalis io (Linnaeus, 1758) European Peacock, Tagpfauenauge, Paon du jour, Многоцветница павлиний глаз, Սիրամարգակն
Distribution and biological peculiarities in Armenia: The species is distributed in Europe and temperate Asia as far east as Japan. Although it is supposed that the country is inhabited by subspecies N. i. caucasica (Jachontov, 1912), the taxonomic status of Armenian populations requires further clarification. The species inhabits deciduous forest and woodlands and the subalpine meadows at the elevation range from 1000 to 2500 m a.s.l. In Armenia the species was recorded to use only Urtica spp as host-plants, although in other parts of its distribution range it was also recorded on Humulus lupulus. It gives one generation per year with butterflies hibernating. Thus the butterflies are being on wing after hibernation from mid April till late May or even mid June at higher elevation, and then the fresh ones fly from early August till mid October.
Population dynamics: The species is uncommon to rare within typical habitat, and shows stable population trend in 2003-2013 (p>0.05). Obviously its host plant is not being pressured by overgrazing or habitat transformation, however the species seems to be sensitive towards habitat's humidity, which can be a limiting factor for the Peacock.
Conservation measures: The species is not included in the Global and National Red lists, but is evaluated for European Red List as a Least Concern. Also the Peacock is not included in CITES and Bern conventions. Preliminary assessment of its conservation status for Armenia also suggests it as a Least Concern. Despite on low abundance the Peacock's distribution range is covered by number of Protected Areas and Emerald Sites, also it is recorded in number of Prime Butterfly Areas. The Peacock remains one of the most popular objects for butterfly-watching and can become a flagship species in development of interest among amateurs and thus can be used for conservation education.