Distribution and biological peculiarities in Armenia: The world distribution of the species is still not defined, mostly because of its unclear taxonomic status. As it was stated in the article of Small Heath, the Esper's Heath is a subject of debates, being often considered as a subspecies, or even just a morph of C. pamphilus. Most probably it occurs in Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, Morocco and Algeria and is monotypic. In Armenia, according to our observations, the Esper's Heath is occupying distinctly different habitats from the Small Heath - inhabiting semi-deserts and dry mountain steppes from about 900 to 1500 m a.s.l. The host plants' range used by the species is much narrower than of the Small Heath - mostly Festuca spp. These features convince us to consider the Esper's Heath as a distinct species, until the genetic investigations help in better clarification of the situation. The butterflies are on wing from early May till late October giving up to four generations per year.
Population dynamics: The species density varies from uncommon to common within typical habitat, and the population trend in the period of 2003-2013 remains stable (p>0.05). The species appears to be adaptable and can survive under grazing conditions.
Conservation measures: The species is not included in the Global, European, and National Red Lists, as well as in CITES and Bern Conventions. Considering this form as a species, we evaluate it as Least Concern, with a reservation that further taxonomic studies have to be undertaken. It occurs in several protected areas and Emerald Sites, and in Prime Butterfly Areas Gnisheek and Ourtsadzor. Obviously the species doesn't require any specific conservation measures, however, it shows a tendency of raising the upper boundary of its distribution, and thus can be considered as a possible indicator of climate change.