Clossiana euphrosyne (Linnaeus, 1758) Pearl-bordered Fritillary, Silberfleck-Perlmutterfalter oder Veilchen-Perlmutterfalter, Grand collier argente ou Nacre sagitte, Перламутровка евфросина, Եֆրոսինյա
Distribution and biological peculiarities in Armenia: The species is widespread throughout Europe, ranging from Scandinavia to northern Spain and from Ireland eastwards towards Russia ans Asia. In Armenia, as well as in entire Caucasus, the subspecies C. e. dagestanica (Sovinsky, 1905) occurs, which inhabits deciduous forests at the elevations from 1000 to 2200 m a.s.l. The species is known to use wide variety of the host plants throughout its range, however it appears that in Armenia the Pearl-bordered Fritillary uses only VIola spp. The species gives one generation per year, the butterflies are on wing from late May till early July.
Population dynamics: The species is slightly uncommon within typical habitat and demonstrates moderate decline during 2003-2013 (p<0.05). The reasons of population's decline might be related to deforestation, however they have to be studied further.
Conservation measures: The species is not included in the Global and Armenian Red Lists, as well as in CITES and Bern Conventions, however it was assessed for the Red Book of European Butterflies (2010). However later, in England and Wales (plus another 10 countries) it has declined rapidly in number and is a highly threatened species, so the current European Conservation status might be changed soon. Preliminary assessment of its National conservation status is suggested as Near Threatened. Although throughout its distribution in Armenia its range is covered by number of Protected Areas and Emerald Sites, significant portion of its range is located within forestry enterprises. To protect the species in Armenia the following conservation measures are suggested: (1) clarification of the reason of population's decline; (2) inclusion of the species in next edition of Red Book of Animals of Armenia; (3) development and adoption of habitat friendly forest management plans and as part of it expansion of non-timber forest production.