Arethusana arethusa (Schiffermuller, 1775) False Grayling, Rotbindiger Samtfalter, Petit agreste ou Mercure, Бархатница аретуза, Արեթուզա
Distribution and biological peculiarities in Armenia: The species can be found as far west as Morocco and as far eastward as SW. Siberia and N. Tian-Shan. Armenia is inhabited by subspecies A. a. pontica (Heyne, ), which occupies meadows and humid mountain steppes between 1800 and 2600 m a.s.l. The species is known to use species of genera Festuca, Bromus erectus, Dactylis, and Poa as the host-plants. It gives one generation per year having butterflies on wing from mid July till mid September.
Population dynamics: The species is uncommon to rare within typical habitat, and although it demonstrates stable population trend in 2003-2013 (p>0.05), it appears that the False Grayling has lower number in degraded habitats. It is therefore possible that ten-years period is not enough and longer term population trend might be different from the current.
Conservation measures: The species is not assessed for the Global and Armenian Red Lists, as well as not included in CITES and Bern Conventions. Its status in European Red Book is a Least Concern, and for Armenia preliminary the same one is suggested, however with a reservation to continue its monitoring as longer-term population trend might require change of its national conservation status.The species occurs in several Protected Areas and Emerald Sites; also its is presented in Prime Butterfly Areas Lichk, Gyumorats, Kajaran, Gnisheek, and Artanish-Shorzha. At current there are no conservation measures needed other than continuation of its monitoring.