Anthocharis gruneri (Herrich-Schaffer, 1851) Gruner's Orange Tip, Aurore des Balkans ou Aurore de Grece, Зорька Грюнера.
Distribution and biological peculiarities in Armenia: The species is found mainly in Turkey, Transcaucasian Mountains, Asia Minor and the Armenian highlands. Armenia is inhabited by subspecies A. g. armeniaca Christoph, 1893. In the country the species is distributed mostly in Southern parts of the republic, where it occupies semi-deserts, juniper woodlands, and arid mountain steppes at elevations from 400 to about 2000 m a.s.l. The larval host plant in Armenia is Microthlaspi umbellatum. Butterflies are on wing in one generation from late March till mid May (sometimes at high elevation - until the end of May).
Population dynamics: The species is slightly uncommon within the typical habitat. Population trend demonstrates some stability, although the distribution shows some vertical expansion and penetration into habitats of higher elevation, e.g. deciduous woodlands. Although Gruner's Orange Tip is highly specialized species, it appears that the host plant, probably due to short vegetation period, is less influenced by livestock husbandry. There is a trade of the species in a medium scale, which is being transferred into breeding of the Gruner's Orange Tip.
Conservation measures: The species is not included in the Global and National Red Lists; in Red Book of Butterflies of Europe it is listed as Least Concern. Also the species is not included in the Appendices of CITES and Bern Conventions. Preliminary assessment of its national conservation status also suggests it as a Least Concern. The distribution range of the species is covered by Zangezur Biosphere Complex, Gnishik Protected Landscape, and Khosrov Forest State Reserve. As it appears, there is no need for specific conservation measure, however it is important to continue monitoring of the species as it can be an indicator of desertification processes.